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(no subject)

Mar. 11th, 2014 | 04:14 pm

Watched Her the other night with S.
I sometimes feel bouts of what I could only describe as meta-empathy. An emotional unveiling of the chasm that divides what is intuitive to me and what is intuitive to another person. It does not mean that I understand that emotion on the other side. But I know it is not what it is here, as I know that I am not there.
I feel like I totally "got" Her, not because of my great intuition or media acuity, but because it totally aligns with my own value system. It is, in my eyes, an ode to Pansexuality that only really fails in certain parts, in the interest of avoiding even MORE complicated questions (like, "What does it mean to 'share' a person?", "Is love divisible? Does it lose its value if it is?", or "How do you bridge the gap from AI Servant to Romantic Partner?")

I feel split on the supporting characters. They ALL seem like props to flesh out the director's take on love, connection and social pressure...but the story is yummy enough to me for it to be worth doing. I couldn't help but get all giddy and clap by myself when Theodore's "best buddy" is totally unfazed when he reveals that he's dating an AI. Emotionally, it is exactly what I wanted, though I don't believe for a second that anyone living in that universe would respond so casually...unless it were being done intentionally. Which is nice as a reflection of many people's "de quoi je me mêle" attitude, but not really conducive to the story itself.

I was torn by Theodore's ex's assertion that he was only with Samantha due to his own inability to deal with the imperfections of a real relationship, and the commitment it required. I really feel like they tried to build her character into someone who could incisively critique Theo + Sam's relationship through her own shared history with him, but I just didn't feel like it got there. Though seeing her smiling in all those flashbacks, and to see her mean, sardonic grimace as she tells him that he needs to grow up, still hit me hard.
On the other hand, I found Theo's gradual shutdown and avoidance of Sam's questions to be much more compelling. Though, once again, the plot comes before all else and takes the edge off of a set of scenes that could have been powerful all by themselves. Same for the scene late in the movie where it is revealed that Samantha is "seeing" a weird philosopher dude. I feel like I TOTALLY get the analogy the director was going for, but the dialog is just not strong enough, or the premise reasonable enough, to carry the scene through. I mean, you're questioning your feelings about your existence and the meaning of your relationship with your boyfriend... so you bring in some amateur you talked all night with to counsel your boyfriend? No.

I felt similarly about the surrogate scene. Conceptually, I LOVED it. But the build-up to it felt short and contrived, once again in the interest of making a nominal point of what can and can't be shared physically, and what intimacy means in that context... Though it built up a great contrast with the final scenes of the movie. Early on, it's Samantha's insubstantiality that "causes" problems, or is at least seen as their ontological focal point. As Samantha gradually accepts who she is, the tables turn; now, it is Theo's materiality that impedes their relationship.

I also felt like I "got" the point of the endless scenes of Theo walking around and doing shit by himself with soft music. It reinforces his loneliness, but also his materiality; he is moving through a space, as the water from his shower is being displaced by his body. But I just couldn't amass the interest to care, Heaven knows why. Maybe I've become inured to such scenes after seeing Sarah préfère la course, where I adored the various framed shots on her legs.

Regardless, I applaud the movie for creating such a great story so artfully told through the actors (and boy are the actors amazing!) After reading an in-depth article on the Street Fighter movie, I feel like I have even more respect for a team that successfully pulls these disparate elements together, and fuses them into a movie compelling enough for me to forgive the moments when the strings show. I also find myself incapable of being too critical of a movie that has the potential to escalate our social conversation around love and intimacy. And that I can bring out next time friends talk about polyamory.

A friend of mine and I were recently discussing Frozen. I, like many, enjoyed the way the movie subverted some of the more ridiculous Disney Tropes (love at first sight, and finding one's prince charming) but my friend contested that the movie didn't go far enough. The girl still falls for the guy who rescues her, in what is obviously a very short lapse of time. I feel that Her similarly compromises by bringing us through a pretty standard courtship (while skirting all issues relating to the fact that Samantha, before being his lover, is his INTELLIGENT SERVANT-SECRETARY) in the interest of making a greater point about how we love. I think I'm OK with that.

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(no subject)

Mar. 10th, 2014 | 06:34 pm

The topic of motivation fascinates me, though I don't often get to talk about it. I think that with friends, it is a conversation that is tarnished by the possibility of #humblebrags. It is one of the last covert pissing contests.So nobody talks about it, except to decry when they themselves are not motivated. Jante's Law at its finest.

However, I am unable of discussing motivation with myself, honestly. The tools I've progressively acquired to combat procrastination have slowly betrayed me. Because they weren't fighting procrastination; they were fighting me. Selective procrastination (appealing to one's ToDo list in its entirety, as opposed to the specific task one needs to do) always sounded so appealing to me... and yet it it a strategy that fails me when I need to take care of something right now. It is not identical to regular procrastination, wherein I invent reasons or find means of not doing the Thing, but rather worse. Because these other activities are given a positive weight. Cleaning up my book collection stops seeming like a cop-out when it is accorded an extrinsic value. It then becomes something that needs to be done; therefore, high-five.

I think this mode of thinking has helped make me extremely well-rounded, as it has given me a reason to indulge in my many interests. I think it has also crippled my ability to focus on a specific project. Tangentially, I wonder if this isn't similar to one of the arguments for marriage. You are explicitly defining a difference in value between Being Married and Not Being Married, reinforcing commitment. Becoming a bachelor anew is no longer a lateral step; it is, according to the institutions in which you've invested yourself, a very obvious and very pronounced step down.

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(no subject)

Mar. 9th, 2014 | 12:59 pm

I've been playing a fair amount of Dungeon Keeper 2, because I enjoy it. Obviously. Also, I've been priming myself for understanding my experiences with Dungeon Keeper, the mobile app. As the app has been critically and universally panned, I am compelled to defend it because... that's who I am, I guess.

Dungeon Keeper 2 has a strong emphasis on exploration. Digging around the level can uncover new minions, new resources, treasures, secrets, etc. and costs very little time. It is understood to be part of most winning strategies, and is even explicitly called out in a few of the campaign levels. This emphasis on exploration is totally lacking from the mobile app, due to the emphasis on a controlled dungeon-building experience. This led the developers to what I consider a ruinous pair of decisions, namely limiting the size of dungeons, and by extension imposing constraints on attempts to explore. So, resources are immediately and regularly available, and digging in the mobile app triggers a downtime. This exorcism of the spirit of exploration that animated so much of Dungeon Keeper 2 left me feeling queasy, once I was able to put a name to it.

Let's talk about play modes.
Dungeon Keeper 2's two play modes (the Campaign and the Freestyle Dungeon) do not perfectly align with the game's two play styles, though they are similar. There is, what I would call a Passive style and an Active one. The Passive style is leisurely, with objectives and gameplay that do not directly harm your Dungeon Heart. The player is given free reign to think out their dungeon, mine resources and dive into the dungeon creation experience. This style is what the Freestyle Dungeon mode is all about, clearly, but it also scoops up the first two thirds of the Campaign, where the threats against one's Dungeon Heart are laughable, unrealistic. It is an extended tutorial, it is a Freestyle Dungeon On Rails.
It's only in the later levels where there is a realistic expectation of invasion or attack that Things Get Real, and the game's real-time strategy pedigree emerges.

The mobile app emphasizes the Passive elements of the series, which represent an impressive portion of the original games. The raids, be they campaign or user, are sectioned off from the main gameplay, as they only impact your creatures, and the buildings all grow back instantly. There is no plot and there is nothing that qualitatively changes one raid experience from another. For a game looking to promote the dungeon-creation experience, this makes sense. The core of the game play is unambiguous, and the elements of Dungeon Keeper 2 most likely to "hamper" that experience have been cut out.

So, no exploration and no actual real-time strategy. Is the dungeon-building side of the equation enough to carry the game? Like some critics, I think that this question depends on the age of the interlocutor. This kind of cynical money-grab, and the glaring laziness of the cold, mathematical framework that accompanies it (upgrade Dungeon Heart 4 to get Training Room 4 to Upgrade Skeletons to Level 4) makes me feel ill. Being made to wait for contrived reasons, to serve the most transparent mercantilism, angers me in a way that does not seem to get to those who have accustomed themselves to this business model. My type mercantilism requires up-front money used to purchase a clearly-defined good. It is the only one I find palatable for now, it seems.

Of more import, this game to me illustrates a failure of sort, one that I would call a Capitalistic Failure. The game is very good at what it does. It really is. Its decisions are internally consistent and logical, given its end goal. And yet, the product is soulless, in a way that is different from big blockbuster movies (like Transformers) and games (like CoD). The commercial element gives games free range to create the simplest Skinner Boxes, and profit off them in a way that seems ground-breaking to me. That makes me sad.

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(no subject)

Mar. 8th, 2014 | 02:11 am

These days,my thoughts unerringly return to Capoeira. To its music, its movements, its flow, its history,...

I have been surprised by how deeply it has sunk its talons into me. I have especially been surprised by the fresh perspective it's given me on Swing Dancing.
Capoeira seems to benefit/suffer from numerous narratives, as numerous groups see it as an activity (or, rather, a history) worth fighting for. Some of these narratives eerily correspond to ones I've found in Swing Dancing, and have helped me put words to my struggle to understand what space, if any, should be given to a White dude seeking to participate in either activity.

In retrospect, I'm surprised by how euphemistic this conversation still was when I used to dance more, and read many Swing blogs. Few people talk about cultural appropriation, or the inevitable effect of the popularization and commercialization of Swing Dancing on the modern community's look. Conversations about "authenticity" are ubiquitous, though, and the important historical figures of Swing Dancing are still venerated. But I wonder how much of it is seen as "respect", and how much is instead seen through the lens of novelty or aesthetic appreciation. I really don't know...
I do know that I no longer feel comfortable going to "costume" events, or joining in on conversations about Swing Dancing and its "cool moves".

In Capoeira, things seem clearer to me. At some point, there seems to have been a backlash against attempts to homogenize, or even sportify Capoeira, seeking to excise all its cultural baggage. It seems to me, with my limited understanding of these things, that Capoeira Angola might have also served as a bulwark against these attempts at sportification. Regardless, these cultural elements, and their historical context, are inextricable from the actual practice of Capoeira. To be a capoerista is to sing the songs of Capoeira and know what they mean, to reflect on their stories, to play its instruments. In fact, NOT participating is anathema.

Clearly, Swing Dancing does not impose these "constraints" though I think there is, as in Capoeira, an understanding of the movements that belong in one's repertoires and the ones which will ensure a Bad Time. Altogether, Swing Dancing seems to depend on the good faith of its dancers, to care and to delve into the history of Swing Dancing...

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Cowboys Never Quit

Sep. 5th, 2013 | 10:35 pm

I have pruned some of my withered leaves, and yet it only feeds the creation of newer ones. The old vanguard does not grow any bigger.

I'm hoping that my new scope of [Nietzsche + Simone de Beauvoir] doesn't over-overextend me. I am *adoring* Pour une Morale de l'ambiguité. I am loving the conversations that are percolating within me. Tentatively, I think that I can make both of these the focal point of my research for a LOOONNNGGG while to come.

I've finished, in rapid succession, A.D.D., the entire S.C.U.D. - The Disposable Assassin collection, as well as almost 8 years of Gunnerkrigg Court. I am excited by how truly great these comics are, though I question whether my adulation is not a function of my lack of exposure to some ultimate tier of graphic novels. Also, WHERE CAN I GET THESE GRAPHIC NOVELS

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Letting Nas Down

Aug. 24th, 2013 | 12:18 am

J. Cole
Freedom or jail, clips inserted
A baby's being born same time a man is murdered
The beginning and end, as far as rap goes
It's only natural, I explain my plateau
And also what defines my name

Yeah, long live the idols, may they never be your rivals
Pac was like Jesus, Nas wrote the Bible
Now what you're 'bout to hear's a tale of glory and sin
No I.D. my mentor now let the story begin

[Verse 1]
I used to print out Nas raps and tape 'em up on my wall
My niggas thought they was words, but it was pictures I saw
And since I wanted to draw, I used to read 'em in awe
Then he dropped Stillmatic, rocked the cleanest velour
Fast forward, who thought that I would meet him on tour?
I'm earnin' stripes now nigga, got Adidas galore
Backstage I shook his hand, let him know that he's the man
When he said he was a fan it was too hard to understand
No time to soak up the moment though, cause I was in a jam
Hov askin' where's the record that the radio could play
And I was strikin' out for months, 9th inning feeling fear
Jeter under pressure, made the biggest hit of my career
But at first, that wasn't clear, niggas had no idea
Dion called me when it dropped, sounded sad but sincere
Told me Nas heard your single and he hate that shit
Said you the one, yo why you make that shit
I can't believe I let Nas down
Damn, my heart sunk to my stomach, I can't believe I let Nas down
I got defensive on the phone, resentment was in my tone, fuck it


[Verse 2]
I couldn't help but think that maybe I had made a mistake
I mean, you made "You Owe Me" dog, I thought that you could relate
But while I shot up the charts, you mean tellin' me
That I was not up to par, when I followed my heart
Granted, my heart was tainted by my mind, I kept on sayin'
Where's the hits? You ain't got none
You know Jay would never put your album out without one
And dog, you know how come
Labels are archaic, formulaic with their outcomes
They don't know, they just study the charts
Me, I study the shows, the fans, study their hearts
I had a feelin' I was killin', and this music we were spillin' out
Would change lives forever, fuck the label, put it out
Friday Night Lights blew, that was classic number 2
Now it seemed as if the Nas comparisons was comin' true
Still no release date from the label, are they insane
Gucc told me play the game to change the game but on the way
I let Nas down, I got no one to blame, I'm ashamed I let Nas down
But this is God's plan, you could never understand, fuck it


[Verse 3]
I always believed in the bigger picture
If I could get them niggas to listen outside my core then I can open a door
Reintroduce 'em to honesty, show 'em that they need more
The difference between the pretenders and the Kendrick Lamars
And so, I took the fall like the son of the Lord
On the cross, dyin' for that fake shit you niggas bought
For the past decade, if I should pass please let this be my last essay
Therefore I write from the heart
Apologies to OG's for sacrificin' my art
But I'm here for a greater purpose, I knew right from the start
I'm just a man of the people, not above but equal
And for the greater good I walk amongst the evil
Don't cry mama, this the life I choose myself
Just pray along the way that I don't lose myself
This is for the nigga that said that hip-hop was dead
I went to Hell to resurrect it, how could you fail to respect it
Lettin' Nas down, I got the phone call quietly I mourned dog, I let Nas down
Yeah, and on this flight may I never lose sight, fuck it

Nas responds
Freedom or jail, clips inserted
A baby's being born same time a man is murdered
The beginning and end, so far as rap goes
It's only natural, I explain my plateau
And also what defines my name

Yeah, long live the idols, may they never be your rivals
Pac was like Jesus, Nas wrote the Bible
Now what you're 'bout to hear's a tale of glory and sin
No I.D. my mentor now let the story begin

[Verse: Nas]
I ain't mad at you, young king, this unsung song is haunting
Along comes a one son called a offspring
The Earth spins, my Old Earth grin, sung a church hymn
She birthed in September, took my first wind, again, the Earth spins
I jumped in my first Benz, fled out, lead out
Screams got in the game and took bread out

The nerve of these niggas, weak flow, yo Cole let's murder this sequel
Freedom or jail from Fayetteville to QB though
Cause back when I was young there was massive niggas
But I passed them niggas, just being nasty nigga
Military hat, fatigue pants sagging, Henny'd up
Execs asking will he live to see his own release date happen
Straight off the corner with the armor, arm and hammer
But I had a appeal, I was a charmer
Yet still being my mama's son was my biggest honor

This shit was just kinda just a hobby in my project lobby
We was trying to be the Queensbridge Cosby's
But the street life robbed me of that, so I had to put it in raps
And who could I ask for help? Older niggas was getting mad
But that's the gift and the curse, that's the good and the bad
At least you got Jay, but he already one of the greats
And it's hard for the great to tell somebody how to be great
Nigga I tried and niggas threw that shit right back in my face
They took my cosign, but they ain't let me EP their tapes
And when they joint tanked, that's when they point blame
So point blank, young Cole, you won't be the same

The first album freedoms and them fourth album pressures
A big difference between 'em but I get why you said it
Radio records are needed, I just wanted it to bring the warning
Global warming to that cold world you was breathing
That's some advice I never got
If I don't sell another record, I'll just steady rock
While you was writing down my rhymes I was just trying to show you
That if you say what's on your mind, you can stand the test of time
Now I'm playing Born Sinner loud, saw you live, rock the crowd
Like wow, you made your nigga Nas proud

So you ain't let Nas down
It's just part of the game, becoming a rap king, my nigga
You ain't let Nas down
How that sound? Here the crown, pass it to you like nothing, nigga
You ain't let Nas down

Long live the idols, may they never be your rivals
Slick Rick was like Jesus, G Rap wrote the Bible
Now what you're 'bout to hear's a tale of glory and sin
Large Professor's my mentor, that's how the story end

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Kendrick Lamar almost a decade ago

Aug. 21st, 2013 | 03:38 pm

I can't wait 'till when it's my time (I'm coming)
No I take that back, 'cause I got time (I'm coming)
I know that patience is virtue

Good call, K-Dot.

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de Beauvoir - Pour une Morale de l'ambiguïté

Aug. 8th, 2013 | 08:26 am

R, son frère, leurs amis et moi sommes en train de lire Pour une Morale de l'ambiguïté, un livre que je trouve fascinant.
J’adore que ça a été écrit lors des années de reconstruction juste après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. J’adore qu’elle envisageait ça comme la suite logique du travail de J-P Sartre (qui n’était pas en mesure, ou qui n’avait pas le temps, pour compléter une réflexion similaire dans un autre bouquin. Il mourut avant de finir l’œuvre.) Mais surtout, je suis totalement charmé par le fait qu’elle vit l’Être et le Néant, un livre décidément masculin, et qu’elle décida de le concrétiser, de rendre les conclusions de ce dernier pratiques, humains. Pour une Morale de l’ambiguïté, c’est sa tentative de prendre une philosophie qui sombre parfois dans la psychologie, et de la rendre accessible à tous ceux qui veulent savoir comment (ou pourquoi) ça leur affecte.

Même si on n’a lu que la première partie, et que je trouve ses références à Hegel déroutant, je pense commencer à comprendre ce qu’elle veut faire avec ce livre. Elle tente de décrire l’ambiguïté de notre vie, de nos actes. Nous sommes vivants mais contemplons notre mort. Nous sommes souverains de nos propres royaumes, mais nous sommes toujours l’objet des autres, de la nature, du monde. Nous sommes des êtres-pour-soi (~subjectifs) mais nous sommes constamment séduits par l’idée de l’être-en-soi (l’objectif.) Je me suis longtemps demandé pourquoi elle a choisi d’utiliser le mot ambiguïté et non ambivalence, étant donné qu’elle semble constamment parler des dichotomies de notre vie. Mais là, je crois comprendre… Même si on perçoit une dichotomie (ou, plutôt, des dichotomies), cela ne veut pas dire que ces choix ont la même valeur.

Sartre insiste que nous sommes des êtres-pour-soi qui pensons parfois être des êtres-en-soi : est-ce que de Beauvoir veut dire que nous avons ces deux aspects en nous? Non! Elle tente de dire que l’être-en-soi, ce n’est pas juste une conséquence de notre participation sociale… non, c’est un repère qui ne nous quitte jamais, qui nous séduit sans arrêt, qui menace notre liberté en nous promettant d’effacer nos choix. Être défini, c’est simple. Être objet, cela nous libère (de nos craintes, de nos anxiétés, etc.) Elle veut dire qu’un être qui vit pleinement et authentiquement doit sans cesse se remettre en question. Être “libre”, dans une acception qui être propre à de Beauvoir, signifie devoir décider à tout moment, et choisir de manière honnête et éclairée, quoi faire. La personne est toujours pour-soi, mais il doit s’en rappeler à tout moment, sinon les sirènes de l’objectivité l’emporteront. La liberté n’existe seulement en fonction de cette tension. Et la personne doit constamment se signaler cette tension, se rappeler qu’elle existe. De Beauvoir semble appeler ce mouvement “se dévoiler”, déclarer au monde que nous sommes des êtres subjectifs, séparés des objets qui nous environnent.

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(no subject)

Jul. 11th, 2013 | 12:19 pm


Je passe beaucoup de temps ces jours-ci à réfléchir au féminisme et à la foi.
J'ai longtemps cru que les hommes plus éduqués, plus érudits, ont plus tendance à appuyer le féminisme (projection?) Depuis que j'ai lu The Game (à propos des Pick-Up Artists, Cruiseurs de filles professionnels), je comprends qu'il y a une certaine mentalité qu'on retrouve chez certains intellos mâles, qui porte ces hommes à percevoir les interactions sociales comme un genre de GN, où il y a des "bonnes réponses" (qui te permettront de baiser la belle pitoune que tu viens de rencontrer) et des "mauvaises réponses" (qui t'empêcheront de réaliser cela.) En effet, je comprends aussi cette attitude parce que je partage certaines de ses hypothèses à propos de la structure des interactions sociales :/ Mais bon.
Ce que l'article de Dianne Andersen m'a rappelé, c'est qu'une grande partie de la misogynie présente dans notre société vit dans les fausses-croyances et les idées reçues de tout le monde, qui demeurent cachées aussi longtemps qu'on n'en parle pas. C'est comme un délire encapsulé: tout est normal, sauf que... En effet, un "allié" du féminisme peut vraisemblablement se croire un défenseur du sort féminin, aussi longtemps qu'on ne lui parle pas de ses privilèges et de ses fausses-croyances. Je suis en accord avec son point, et je suis très prêt à croire qu'un homme qui se considère "allié" ne voudra pas qu'on lui retire son beau titre. Mais je me demande si elle est en train de dire que ces hommes-là sont même MOINS à l'écoute des critiques à l'endroit de leur attitude que les hommes "ordinaires". De mes expériences (en tant que critique et critiqué), la discussion s'avère difficile dans les deux cas. Donc, ne pas faire confiance aux hommes? Ou aux femmes qui se servent des mêmes idées-reçues pour critiquer leurs sœurs "trop agitées" ou "trop extrémistes"? Je trouve que c'est un argumentaire qui fait possiblement preuve d'une certaine arrogance: "Je choisis les gens dignes du titre de féministe". Si la misogynie est vraiment aussi systémique qu'on la prétend, c'est très possible que la GRANDE majorité des gens, dont la majorité des militants, pourraient avoir des notions sexistes qui sous-tendent leurs propos, non? C'est comme le Péché originel: nul n'est épargné! Donc, est-ce qu'être féministe, c'est un état final, ou un processus?
En même temps, critiquer ouvertement et honnêtement ces gens-là est 1 000x mieux que de ne rien dire. Et c'est dur de prétendre que cela doit être très désemparant pour elle d'être entourée d'"alliés" qui ne le sont aussi longtemps qu'elle ne pousse pas trop fort...

Hmm... ou peut-être que mon discours correspond parfaitement au genre de discours réactionnaire que Dianne semble décrire... Je ne sais pas.

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(no subject)

Jun. 30th, 2013 | 09:30 pm

حضرت عرس صديقتي كريستين أمس يوم السبت في "سايت أستاش" وهي مدينة قريبة عن منتريال. كنتُ مدهشا للغاية لأنه كان الاحافال غير أصولي, ممتعا ومحترما في الوقت نفسي. ليس ذلك شيء سهل بل معقد بسبب ضرورة احترام رغبات أهلهما وتقاليدهم. هذا هو سبب من أسباب إزعاجي إزاء فكرة العرس. أعتفد أن العرس شيء مخلوفق لصالح أشخاص آخرين وليس لصالح ال العروس والعريس. من ال ممكن أن قد أثارتي تجاربي في حفلات الزفاف المسيحية الكبيرة لأنها كانت كلها طويلة الوقت ومملة وأصولية جدا. شعرتُ  في أن قد كانت تلك الاحتفالات مصممة لسرور ألأقلية ولم ينضمم العروص والعريص في هذه الفريق.
كان احتفال صديقتي مملئا إشارات إلى برامج تلفازية التي يحبا, ونكات التي يعلموها يأصحابهما وتقاليدهما الخاصة التي خلقاها. هذه المادات تسهم إلى بيئة اللطيفة والودية ومثيرة الحقاوة. أعتقد أن كان أهم جزء لابداع هذه البيئة هو أن العريص والعروص كانا صاحبي الاحافال ولم يجد حديث أو نشاط سوى يختارا أن يضمماه. اختارا المصيقى والخطب وأضافا اهتفال ربت الايدي. خلقا نموذخهما الخاصة والخصوصة.
مع ذلك ما زلت أن أشعر أن الاحتفالات كذلك تتسبب إلى الكثير من المشاكل وتحتاج الكثير من المال والوقت وتثير الكثير من التوترات غير الضرورية. ولكن من السهل احترام ما فعلا صديقتي وزوجها لاكرام نقابتهما

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